MOD is a Crown body and the sites they operate have some exemptions from legislation. In addition, the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 excludes any nuclear reactor comprised in a means of transport, such as a submarine, thereby exempting parts of Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited from licensing.
The MOD internal regulator, the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) leads on regulating nuclear safety at the non-licensed sites. However the MOD is not exempt from the duties imposed by Health and Safety at Work Act, and other provisions such as the Ionising Radiations Regulations 2017 or Radiation (Emergency Preparedness and Public Information) Regulations 2019 (REPPIR). ONR is the enforcing authority under these regulations and other legislation. ONR works closely with DNSR to ensure efficient, effective and complete regulation is delivered on all the defence related sites.
As a Crown Body the MOD cannot be prosecuted, but there are administrative arrangements in place whereby MOD may be censured in respect of offences which would have led to prosecution.