The five nuclear-weapon states defined by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (i.e. the United Kingdom, the United States of America, China, France and the Russian Federation) have voluntary offer safeguards agreements (VOAs) in force covering some or all of their peaceful nuclear activities.
A VOA is an agreement concluded between the IAEA and a nuclear weapon State which, under the NPT, is not required to accept safeguards but which has voluntarily offered to do so to allay concerns that the application of IAEA safeguards could lead to commercial disadvantages for the nuclear industries of non-nuclear weapon States. Under the UK VOA the UK offers nuclear material and facilities in its civil nuclear fuel cycle for selection by the IAEA for the application of safeguards.
ONR submits nuclear material accounting reports and basic design information for all facilities offered to the IAEA for the application of safeguards.
The Voluntary Offer Agreement also allows the UK to remove facilities or withdraw material from the scope of the agreement for reasons for national security.
Details of withdrawals are available here:
The UK has also agreed an Additional Protocol with the IAEA, supplementing the Voluntary Offer Agreement. These extend the reporting required beyond nuclear material accountancy to areas such as research and development, specified imports and exports, and provides access to the IAEA to verify this reporting.
The UK’s Additional Protocol came into force on 31 December 2020. It is implemented under the Nuclear Safeguards Act 2000. The accompanying Nuclear Safeguards (Notifications) Regulations 2004 implement certain provisions of the act.
The Government is likely to be aware of certain parties who will provide information to satisfy its obligations under the additional protocol. However, there may be others that the Government is unaware of. The regulations require that such people make themselves known, so that they can provide the relevant information to be passed to the IAEA.
People who are:
that are carried out in co-operation with, or are otherwise relevant to, a non-nuclear weapon State (i.e. any state other than China, France, Russia, the UK or USA), and that are not funded, specifically authorised or controlled by, or carried out on behalf of Her Majestys Government. Such activities, including computer and paper-based studies, need to be declared whether or not they involve nuclear material.
Carrying out the following activities:
Contact us by writing to ONR Safeguards, 4N3 Redgrave Court, Merton Road, Bootle, L20 7HS or emailing email@example.com with the following information:
By no later than 15 January in the year following the start of the activity.
Unless your details change, they need only be provided once.
ONR will write to request the provision of information on each activity. The request will specify the format in which the information should be provided and the date by which it should be provided.
The information will be declared to the IAEA in order to satisfy the UK's international nuclear non-proliferation obligations under the Additional Protocol to its safeguards agreement with Euratom and the IAEA.
Only information that is necessary for the purposes of the Additional Protocol will be sought, and in most cases it is expected that such information will not be confidential.
Nonetheless, the Nuclear Safeguards Act 2000 makes the unauthorised disclosure in the UK of information obtained under the Act (and hence the Regulations) a criminal offence, with exceptions in certain clearly defined circumstances. The Additional Protocol requires the IAEA to maintain a stringent regime to ensure effective protection against disclosure of any confidential information that comes to its knowledge.